Saturday, March 17, 2012

"Execution"

Scene from a necktie party: Albert Salmi (on horse), John Lormer, Faye Roope, and George Mitchell (in background)
"Execution"
Season One, Episode 26
Original Air Date: April 1, 1960

Cast:
Joe Caswell: Albert Salmi
Professor George Manion: Russell Johnson
Paul Johnson: Than Wyenn
Judge: Fay Roope
Reverend: Jon Lormer
Bartender: Richard Karlan
Old Man: George Mitchell
Cowboy:
Joe Haworth

Crew:
Writer: Rod Serling (teleplay based on an unpublished story by George Clayton Johnson)
Director:
David Orrick McDearmon
Producer: Buck Houghton
Director of Photography: George T. Clemens
Music: Stock

And now, Mr. Serling:
"This may look like some kind of kooky greenhouse. Actually, it happens to be a conveyance, a mode of travel, time travel. And next week you'll see Albert Salmi take an extended journey from 1880 to 1960. I hope then next week you'll be able to take another walk with us into
The Twilight Zone. (Serling vanishes from within time machine). Hey, where did everybody go?" 

Rod Serling's Opening Narration:
"Commonplace, if somewhat grim, unsocial event known as a necktie party. The guest of dishonor, a cowboy named Joe Caswell, just a moment away from a rope, a short dance several feet off the ground, and then the dark eternity of all evil men. Mr. Joe Caswell who, when the good Lord passed out a conscience, a heart, a feeling for fellow man, must have been out for a beer and missed out. Mr. Joe Caswelll, in the last quiet moment of a violent life."


Summary:
    The year is 1880 and on a bleak patch of land a murderer named Joe Caswell is being executed by hanging for shooting a man in the back. Caswell is an unrepentant man with a twisted way of seeing the world and the events which happen in it. Before he is to be hanged, Caswell is given two opportunities to show his true nature. Even in the moments before his death, he is a mean and bitter man, shunning a preacher's attempt to say a prayer over him and even mocking the man he killed in front of that man's own father. Then it is time to slap the horse and hang Caswell. Except something extraordinary happens instead. Though the men turn their eyes away from Caswell at the moment of his hanging, when they look again his body has completely vanished.
    Caswell wakes up on a couch in a dark laboratory. He is greeted by a scientist named George Manion. Manion shows Caswell a large, glass-enclosed structure in the center of the room and informs Caswell that he, Caswell, has been the subject of an extraordinary experiment. Manion has constructed the world's first operative time machine and with it has pulled Caswell right out of the past and into the present, which happens to be eighty years in Caswell's future, the year 1960. While looking over Caswell, however, Manion notices the rope burn along Caswell's neck and it is apparent in the scientist's face that he fears he may have made a mistake about the man he pulled out of the past.
    Later, Manion is alone in his laboratory and is dictating details into his tape recorder. Caswell has told him a lie about who he is and what he was doing when Manion pulled him into the future. Manion is very suspicious about what Caswell has told him because of the rope burns and also because Manion simply doesn't like the look of Caswell. He has the look of a killer.
    Caswell walks into the laboratory looking very much disoriented by his surroundings. When Manion not-so-subtly pushes Caswell into admitting that he was at the end of a rope when he was pulled into the future, Caswell, predictably, reacts violently, attacking Manion and killing him by bludgeoning him with a desk lamp. Caswell panics and runs from the laboratory and into the streets of New York City. There, Caswell is bombarded with the loud sounds and bright lights of the city. It is driving him insane and he angrily lashes out at everything. He gets trapped in a phone booth and must burst through the glass to escape. Caswell eventually stumbles into a bar, empty except for the bartender. There, Caswell is confronted by the sounds of a loud playing jukebox. As the bartender watches in horror, Caswell smashes the jukebox into silence with a chair. When the bartender starts to object, Caswell brandishes a gun and demands a drink. Then he spies the television mounted above the bar and the bartender reluctantly turns it on. On it, an actor dressed as a cowboy on the set of a western program pulls one of his pistols and fires it at the screen. Horrified, Caswell pulls his own pistol and shoots the television screen, destroying it. The bartender, having had enough, yells for the police. Caswell flees back out into the street, brandishing his gun, waving it around, and scaring all the people on the street. He is nearly hit by an approaching car and shoots into the windshield.
    Finding his way back to Manion's laboratory, Caswell pleads to the dead man to come back to life and help him but it is, of course, to no avail. In walks an armed hood named Paul Johnson. He has come to rob the office. He thinks Caswell has come to do the same and holds him at arms length with his gun. Caswell takes an opportunity to knock the gun from Johnson's hand and the two men struggle over the weapon. Johnson eventually gets the upper hand and strangles Caswell to death with a length of cord from the blinds covering the window. Johnson then continues what he came to do and attempts to get into a file cabinet but cannot find the right set of keys. He sees a panel of knobs on the wall and turns them all. Electrical machinery can be heard turning on and humming idly. Johnson's eye is then drawn to the time machine in the center of the room and he cautiously steps inside the structure only to realize too late that he has inadvertently activated the device. The machine seals Johnson inside and he quickly vanishes. He is thrown back to 1880, the exactly moment when Caswell was pulled into the future, putting Johnson's neck right into the hangman's noose meant for Caswell. The three men that were to hang Caswell stand there in astonishment, unable to figure out what has happened. They say a prayer that they have not killed an innocent man and then they cart Johnson's body away. Justice, of a very strange sort, has been served.

Rod Serling's Closing Narration:
"This is November, 1880, in the aftermath of a necktie party. The victim's name, Paul Johnson, a minor-league criminal and the taker of another human life. No comment on his death save this. Justice can span years, retribution is not subject to a calendar. Tonight's case in point, in The Twilight Zone." 

Commentary:
    "Execution" is the second contribution from Twilight Zone stalwart writer George Clayton Johnson and the episode has a great deal in common, both in theme and style, with his first contribution, "The Four of Us Are Dying." When Johnson originally made his way to California he broke into the film and television industries by selling short fiction or story treatments before writing his own original teleplays. He is still remembered today for selling the story that eventually became the 1960 film Ocean's Eleven starring Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, and Sammy Davis, Jr.  and which was remade into the more famous 2001 film of the same title starring George Clooney, Matt Damon, Brad Pitt, and Julia Roberts.
    For The Twilight Zone, Johnson proceeded in much the same way. Through his connection to writer Charles Beaumont, Johnson was able to get his foot in the door at Cayuga Productions and get a few of his story treatments into the hands of series creator Rod Serling and producer Buck Houghton. It was not until the second season episode "A Penny For Your Thoughts" that Johnson would write his first teleplay for The Twilight Zone, a show that he would leave an indelible mark upon. Johnson falls into the camp of science fiction writers that are not as concerned with the explanation of how something may be possible but rather with what the consequences would be were such a thing possible. In "Execution," he gives us a time machine and uses it as a plot device for furthering the notion that the battle of good and evil that exists within each human being is timeless. Thematically, the episode functions primarily as a condemnation of senseless violence and is probably the most violent episode ever to air on the series.
    "Execution" is also the first western-themed episode since "Mr. Denton on Doomsday." The western theme is one which Rod Serling, and occasionally other writers for the show, felt comfortable enough revisiting for it to become its own subcategory within the show's broad range of subject matter, much like the war episodes or the the time travel episodes. Unlike other western-themed episodes, however, "Execution" is also a time travel episode and affords the audience an opportunity to view the juxtaposition between the past and the present, viewed through the perspective lens of an unrepentant killer in the form of cowboy Joe Caswell. It is the fable-like quality, and somewhat simplistic, nature of the plot that lends "Execution" its similarity to "The Four of Us Are Dying." More so than that, it is in the filming techniques of the episodes where the true similarity lies. Though the episodes were directed by two different directors, John Brahm directed "The Four of Us Are Dying" and David Orrick McDearmon directed "Execution," both episodes posed their respective directors similar challenges. Both required special effects which worked better if the effect were not explicitly shown. I have stated before in previous posts how important it was for each episode that relied on special effects as an integral part of the plot to not overdo the effects for fear of the episode falling into a laughable state. This is true of "Execution" and the effects are kept necessarily subtle. When showing Joe Caswell's body disappearing from the hangman's noose, a shadow was shown on a large boulder disappearing instead of attempting to make the likeness of actor Albert Salmi disappear, the latter of which would have been difficult to achieve with substantial believability. The disappearing effect that had to be achieved later on the character of Paul Johnson within the time machine was a much easier set piece in which to manage the effect.
    The most commanding sequences of "Execution" are the scenes in which Caswell is thrust out into the bustling city at night. Like director John Brahm's work on "The Four of Us Are Dying," director McDearmon, and photographer George T. Clemens, the latter of whom worked on both episodes, use extreme camera angles and frenetic camera movement to convey the mindset of Caswell as the city's noise and lights bear down upon him. One of the more recognizable effects that Clemens reused from his earlier work on "The Four of Us Are Dying" is the effective image of floating neon signs.
    As stated previously, the overbearing theme of the episode is the innate urge for violence in each human being and the struggle to control that urge. Early in the episode actor Russell Johnson as scientist George Manion states that "I fear that I have taken a nineteenth century primitive and released him in a twentieth century jungle. And God help whoever gets in his way."  Serling chose to highlight this line by repeating it again later in the episode and it perfectly illustrates the theme that writers George Clayton Johnson and Serling were trying to achieve.
    Actor Albert Salmi, who would go on to appear in two additional Twilight Zone episodes, is the outstanding actor of the episode and not surprisingly since he is given the meat of the dialogue and almost all of the screen time. Salmi does an exceptional job in the role and, though he is undoubtedly a human monster, even manages to elicit a bit of pathos from the viewer when describing the hardscrabble existence of a cowboy in Old West. Salmi was a fine actor that achieved critical acclaim early in his career when he portrayed Smerdjakov in 1958's The Brothers Karamazov and his performance was recognized for its excellence by the National Board of Review. Salmi would go on to be all over television for the next three decades, appearing in classic genre anthologies, other than The Twilight Zone, such as Alfred Hithcock Presents, The Alfred Hitchcock Hour, One Step Beyond, and Rod Serling's Night Gallery. After seeing his excellent performance in "Execution," it's easy to imagine that his biggest presence on the small screen would be in westerns. Salmi appeared in classic westerns such as Have Gun, Will Travel, Wagon Train, Gunsmoke, Bonanza and Rawhide. He guest-starred on several other classic television programs, a few of which include The Fugitive, Combat!, Hawaii Five-O, and Knight Rider. Samli passed away on April 22, 1990 in Spokane, Washington, at the age of 68.
    Actor Russell Johnson would achieve television immortality when he portrayed Professor Roy Hinkley (sometimes Hinckley) on the comedy Gilligan's Island from 1964 to 1967. Before that, Johnson was a prolific actor appearing in a number of television shows and B-films. In the same way that Albert Salmi excelled at portraying rough and tumble cowboy types, Johnson excelled at portraying clean-cut intellectuals. His other claims to genre fame, other than his two episodes of The Twilight Zone, are his appearances in films such as It Came From Outer Space (1953), This Island Earth (1955), and Attack of the Crab Monsters (1957). Johnson also appeared in episodes of Thriller and Alfred Hithcock Presents.
    Overall, "Execution" is a capably produced episode, well acted, and contains some good dialogue in Serling's teleplay. One of the more memorable moments connected to the show, however, wasn't in the episode at all but rather is the promotional teaser for "Execution" that originally aired at the tail end of the previous episode, "People Are Alike All Over." In it, Rod Serling stands within the glass-enclosed time machine and, after delivering his dialogue previewing the episode, disappears before the viewer's eyes. An effect of a similar nature would be echoed for Serling's first on-screen appearance in an actual episode when he appears and then disappears as a figment of an author's imagination at the end of the final season one episode, "A World of His Own."
    Though writer George Clayton Johnson would not contribute as many episodes as his friends and fellow writers Charles Beaumont and Richard Matheson, the quality of what he did contribute made up for the low quantity. Very little of what he contributed to the show was below average and most was well above. "Execution" doesn't stick in the memory quite like some of Johnson's other episodes, "Nothing in the Dark," "A Game of Pool," or "Kick the Can," for instance, but it is still a memorable episode and one that packs a pretty good punch at the end. 

Grade: C

Notes:
--Albert Salmi appeared in two additional episodes of The Twilight Zone, "A Quality of Mercy" from Season Three and "Of Late I Think of Cliffordville" from Season Four.
--Russell Johnson also appeared in "Back There" from Season Two.
--David Orrick McDearmon also directed "A Thing About Machines" and "Back There" from Season Two.
--"Execution" was adapted as a Twilight Zone Radio Drama starring Don Johnson.
--As stated by Marin Grams in his book The Twilight Zone: Unlocking the Door to a Television Classic (OTR Publishing, 2008), actor Neville Brand was originally cast in the role of Joe Caswell, even rehearsing with the cast and crew, before calling in sick and having to be replaced with Albert Salmi.

--Jordan Prejean

Tuesday, March 6, 2012

"People Are Alike All Over"

Roddy McDowall as astronaut Sam Conrad and Susan Oliver as Martian temptress Teenya
 
“People Are Alike All Over”
Season One, Episode 25
Original airdate: March 25, 1960
                                                        
Cast:
Samuel Conrad: Roddy McDowall
Warren Marcusson: Paul Comi
Teenya: Susan Oliver
Martian #1: Byron Morrow
Martian #2: Vic Perrin
Martian #3: Vernon Gray

Crew:
Writer: Rod Serling (teleplay based on the short story, “Brothers Beyond the Void,” by
Paul W. Fairman).
Director: Mitchell Leisen
Producer: Buck Houghton
Director of Photography: George T. Clemens
Music: Stock

And now, Mr. Serling:
“Next week an excursion to Mars with Roddy McDowell and Paul Comi, two men trying to prove a point—a simple proposition that men are alike all over.  And on Mars they discover that this is just whistling in the dark.  People are not alike and next week on the Twilight Zone you’ll see why.  I hope you’ll be with us.  Thank you and good night.”

Rod Serling’s Opening Narration:
“You’re looking at a species of flimsy little two-legged animals with extremely small heads whose name is ‘man.’  Warren Marcusson, age thirty-five.  Samuel A. Conrad, age thirty-one.  They’re taking a highway into space, man unshackling himself and sending his tiny, groping fingers into the unknown.  Their destination is Mars, and in just a moment we’ll land there with them.”

Summary:
McDowall & Paul Comi as Conrad & Marcusson
Samuel Conrad and Warren Marcusson stand outside the gates of a cement lot that houses the most advanced spacecraft ever assembled.  In less than three hours it will become their home.  The two men have been chosen to pilot mankind’s maiden voyage to the planet Mars.  Looking up at the towering space vessel, Conrad confesses his apprehensions to Marcusson.  He is afraid of what they might encounter on Mars.  Marcusson reassures him that even on Mars there is bound to be creatures who feel sympathy and compassion because the laws of nature suggest that creatures are alike everywhere.  Marcusson’s optimistic outlook seems to cheer him up.
                Some time later.  After a mechanical malfunction, Conrad and Marcusson crash-land on the surface of Mars.  Conrad appears to be uninjured but Marcusson has a broken leg.  Nevertheless, he suggests they open the door of their ship and take a look around.  Conrad tells Marcusson that he is hurt too badly to go exploring and that he should rest.  Marcusson calls his bluff and Conrad confesses that he is too frightened to go outside.  Marcusson pleads with him to open the door and let him out but before Conrad gets a chance to do so Marcusson dies of internal injuries.  With no alternative Conrad opens the door and steps outside, a pistol clutched in his hand.
                To his amazement he sees a crowd of people, human beings, gathered around the ship.  What amazes him even more is that they speak his language and invite him to their city.  He follows them into their city where they have constructed an exact replica of what a home on Earth would look like.  Conrad decides that he likes the Martians, especially a female named Teenya who has been particularly kind to him.  The Martians tell him to make himself at home and they will be back soon to check on him.
                A few hours later Conrad is mixing himself a drink when he notices that there are no windows anywhere in the house.  He tries all of the doors but discovers, to his horror, that they are locked.  He is trapped.  He begins pounding on the walls with his fists, demanding to know why he has been locked in.  Suddenly, one of the walls begins to lift slowly from the ground, revealing a row of steel bars on the other side.  There is a crowd of people gathered around his house, staring at him.  He notices a sign on the other side of the bars that reads:  EARTH CREATURE IN HIS NATURAL HABITAT. 

Rod Serling’s Closing Narration:
“Species of animal brought back alive.  Interesting similarity physical characteristics to human beings in head, trunk, arms, legs, hands, feet.  Very tiny undeveloped brain. Comes from primitive planet named Earth.  Calls himself Samuel Conrad.  And he will remain here in the cage with the running water and the electricity and the central heat, as long as he lives.  Samuel Conrad has found the Twilight Zone.”

Commentary:
                “People Are Alike All Over” is Serling’s adaptation of Paul W. Fairman’s short story, “Brothers Beyond the Void.”  This episode has become a recognizable one among fans of the show due mainly to the memorable twist at the end of it.  It’s an enjoyable episode but one that does not merit many additional viewings simply because it functions almost exclusively for the surprise at the end.  However, Serling must have been fully aware of the dramatic shock value of this story because according to Martin Grams in his book, The Twilight Zone: Unlocking the Door to a Television Classic, he purchased Fairman’s story for $2500, making it the most expensive story purchased during the first season and one of the most expensive of the entire series.  It’s no surprise that the cynicism of this story would have appealed to Serling.  It shares a temperament with “The Monsters Are Due on Maple Street” and many of his other stories in that it paints a fairly optimistic image of society and then juxtaposes it with one that is incredibly harsh and unappealing.  The basic tone and premise of the episode was already present in Fairman’s version and Serling remains relatively faithful in his adaptation.  The only major difference is that Fairman’s version sees only one man (Marcuson) sent to Mars while his friend (Conrad) remains on Earth.
                This episode marks Fairman’s only contribution to The Twilight Zone.  He was apparently quite prolific during his career and for a brief period enjoyed some notoriety as an editor.  Early in his career Fariman befriended mystery and fantasy author Howard Browne.  At the time Browne was editor of Mammoth Mystery, Fantastic Adventures and Amazing Stories, all owned by Ziff-Davis Publishing Company.  Browne published many of Fairman’s early stories including “Brothers Beyond the Void” which first appeared in the March, 1952 issue of Fantastic Adventures.  That same month, Fairman was hired by James L. Quinn to be the first editor of Quinn’s science fiction magazine If, but he was fired after only four issues due to disappointing sales figures (it should be noted that while he was at If, Fairman published Charles Beaumont’s story “The Beautiful Peoplewhich Beaumont and John Tomerlin would later adapt into the Season Five episode “Number Twelve Looks Just Like You”).  After Browne left Ziff-Davis in 1956, Fairman took over his position as editor of Amazing Stories and its sister publication, Fantastic (sort of a digest version of Fantastic Adventures, which ended in 1953).  While at these publications his regular contributors included Harlon Ellison, Robert Silverberg, Robert Bloch, Henry Slesar and many others who were or would become giants of speculative fiction.  He held this dual position until the end of 1958 when he left Ziff-Davis to become an editor at Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine.  After leaving EQMM in 1963, he continued to write full time, publishing under his own name and often under the name Ivar Jorgensen.  He ghost-wrote novels for Lester Del Rey and Ellery Queen and saw his stories, “Deadly City” and “The Cosmic Flame,” turned into the cult film classics (I use the word “classics” with the utmost caution), Target Earth (1954) and Invasion of the Saucer Men (1957), respectively.  Among his many novels are Copper Town (1954), Rest in Agony (1961), Ten From Infinity (1963) and I, the Machine (1968).
                In many ways “People Are Alike All Over” holds a significant place in popular culture because it can be considered a precursor to Planet of the Apes (1968).  In addition to the fact that it stars Roddy McDowall, who would play various roles throughout the Planet of the Apes saga, this episode mirrors the classic sci-fi film in both theme and structure.  Both stories see man, who is often thought of as the universally supreme being, in a reverse role of being a caged animal instead of its keeper.  It’s quite likely that Serling had this episode, as well as the earlier Season One episode “I Shot An Arrow Into the Air,” in mind when he wrote the initial screenplay for Planet of the Apes.

Roddy McDowall in full Ape apparel
Planet of the Apes, 1968
Along with Ed Wynn, Jack Klugman and Vera Miles, Roddy McDowall was one of the biggest names that the first season had to offer and at the time many viewers would have tuned into to this episode specifically for him.  He had a knack for playing socially awkward characters and his performance here as the likeable but incredibly naive Sam Conrad is quite enjoyable.  McDowall made a name for himself in the early 1940’s as a child actor in John Ford’s How Green Was My Valley (1941) and the family classics My Friend Flicka (1943) and Lassie Come Home (1943).  Over the next decade or so he managed to make the rare transition from child star to successful adult actor and enjoyed a prominent career in film, television and Broadway, appearing in both the stage and film versions of Orson Welles’s Macbeth (1948), opposite Boris Karloff in the Playhouse 90 adaptation of Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness (1958) and in the acclaimed Broadway productions of No Time for Sergeants (1955) and Camelot (1960).  In the same year that he appeared in The Twilight Zone he won a Tony Award for his performance in The Fighting Cock and an Emmy for the Sunday Showcase drama “Not Without Honor.”  In 1968 he undertook the role of Cornelius in the first Planet of the Apes film and would be associated with the franchise for the rest of his career, appearing in four of the five Apes films and also in the short lived 1974 television spinoff which aired on CBS.  In addition to Planet of the Apes and The Twilight Zone, McDowell worked with Serling again in the pilot episode of Night Gallery.  His other notable film appearances include The Longest Day (1962), Cleopatra (1963, for which he was rumored to have been nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor but was disqualified due to an error on the part of Twentieth Century Fox), The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965), The Poseidon Adventure (1972), Richard Matheson’s The Legend of Hell House (1973), and Fright Night (1985).  He died of lung cancer in 1998 at the age of seventy. 
While I admit that "People Are Alike All Over" is not one of my favorite offerings from Season One, I wouldn't go so far as to call it a terrible episode.  I would suggest to those who have never seen it that it at least deserves at least a viewing or two if for no other reason than to appreciate its place in the lexicon of speculative fiction.

Grade: C

Notes:
March, 1952 issue of Fantastic Adventures
--Paul W. Fairman’s story “Brothers Beyond the Void” first appeared in the March, 1952 issue of Fantastic Adventures.  It was also published in August Derleth’s anthology Worlds of Tomorrow (1953).  And you can find it in Twilight Zone: the Original Stories (Avon, 1985; MJF, 1997).
--“People Are Alike All Over” was adapted into a Twilight Zone Radio Drama starring Blair Underwood (Falcon Picture Group, 2002).
--Director Mitchell Leisen’s career in Hollywood stretches back to the era of silent films, beginning as an art director in many of Cecile B. DeMille early productions.  He began directing his own films in 1933 and throughout the 1930’s and 40’s was a highly sought-after presence in the motion picture industry.  Among his numerous credits are the films Midnight (1939), Hold Back the Dawn (1941) and The Mating Season (1951).  He also directed Season One’s “The Sixteen-Millimeter Shrine” and “Escape Clause.”
--Paul Comi also appeared in Season Two’s “The Odyssey of Flight Thirty-three” and Season Four’s “The Parallel.”

--Brian Durant